Graduated U.C.Berkeley, 12/97. B.A., Anthropology (Honors, Highest Distinction)
Master's Degree in Medical Anthropology* 05/06, University of Hawaii at Manoa.
The story of Macandal represents a search that lead me to many continents around the world.
Assembling the life of Macandal (aka "Mackendal" or "Mackandal") requires more than studying oral and written history.
I am the world's foremost authority on Francois Macandal, determined to understand his rhetoric from the inside out ("emic"),
instead of one-dimensionally, as a historian would, theorizing based on limited and often tainted, evidence.
Raised in a strict religion myself, I understand how the "mental chains" of ideology shape perspectives,
once a newly independent identity emerges. I tried to cull the pieces of Macandal's Islamic, Christian, African and
Colonialist influences as objectively as possible to theorize about Macandal's evolving paradigm and values.
Through his saga a completely unique history of Africa, Haiti, the Diaspora and Christian-Muslim hatred is revealed. I hope the story of Macandal
can be of benefit to many who hold strong religious and political convictions. Macandal's story also helps to shed light on the question of
why Africa has been unable to enter the modern world and what may be done to undo the past wrongs in Africa.
*Among other applications Medical Anthropology can focus on the way plants are used as medicine or in rituals.
Macandal used plants both to treat diseases and poison the French.